As school sexual assault insurance policies draw elevated scrutiny amid ongoing federal modifications, paperwork reviewed by The Daily recommend that Stanford has publicly misrepresented elements of its personal Title IX practices.
Bob Ottilie ’77, a lawyer who has suggested college students in Title IX instances at Stanford and at different faculties, confirmed The Daily correspondence with Title IX employees indicating that the College prohibited events in a minimum of two sexual misconduct instances from gathering their very own witness statements and in at the very least one case didn’t permit events to evaluate substantial info that had been redacted from proof ready for a listening to.
Each of those practices run opposite to Stanford’s public statements relating to the rights of scholars concerned in Title IX instances.
For Ottilie, the discrepancy between Stanford’s statements and practices is only one facet of broader considerations concerning the rights of scholars accused in Stanford’s Title IX proceedings. Ottilie has criticized Stanford’s expectation that accused college students initially reply to complaints with out full particulars concerning the allegations towards them, in addition to the College’s practices round proof admission.
He has additionally argued that the Title IX Workplace’s selections in his shoppers’ instances present bias towards male college students.
Others defend Stanford’s system, saying it has acquired undue criticism or contending that Title IX is as an alternative unfair to complainants.
As Schooling Secretary Betsy DeVos seeks to revise federal steerage on how schools deal with sexual assault instances, her proposed coverage modifications have garnered approval from people who — like Ottilie — have raised considerations concerning the rights of the accused underneath present federal coverage in addition to at Stanford particularly.
“Understanding that the University is legitimately scrutinized by both parties — one who wants an education free from an assailant on campus, the other who does not want to suffer an unjustified finding of responsibility — the University’s process favors neither the complainant nor the accused,” wrote Stanford spokesperson E.J. Miranda in an e mail to The Daily.
Statements on evidentiary insurance policies undermined
Ottilie stated Stanford has publicly misrepresented a facet of Stanford’s new Title IX course of, launched in 2016, that makes it more durable for events in sexual assault instances to fight evidentiary selections that they discover unfair.
Miranda informed The Daily by way of e mail that college students can acquire and submit their very own witness statements if they need, however that the College prefers “a neutral investigator to ask questions and summarize responses rather than risking a one-sided or incomplete witness statement.”
“Moreover, the University has received complaints from witnesses that third-party investigators, usually [private investigators], can come across as intimidating to student witnesses, and we remind parties that they are responsible for the conduct of the individuals that they are employing to assist them in investigations,” Miranda wrote.
Coverage has not modified underneath the brand new Title IX system, he added. Former College spokesperson Lisa Lapin made an analogous statement to The Daily final yr.
However emails from a Title IX investigator relating to shoppers of Ottilie’s — reviewed by The Daily and first coated final yr together with a few of Ottilie’s criticisms of Title IX — present that the Title IX Workplace not solely discourages but in addition has, at the least in some instances, prohibited college students from gathering their very own statements. Such statements can’t be submitted underneath the brand new Title IX course of, an investigator wrote.
“[Stanford is] lying because they are ashamed of what they do,” Ottilie stated.
One other e mail reviewed by The Daily confirmed that Title IX employees declined to interview the psychologist of a male shopper of Ottilie’s, who had filed a competing declare of sexual assault towards a feminine accuser. Ottilie stated the psychologist would have supported the male scholar’s claims and bolstered his protection.
Explaining its determination within the e mail to Ottilie, the Title IX Workplace wrote that the dialog was not related as a result of the scholar’s discussions with the psychologist weren’t contemporaneous to the alleged incident.
“It was absolutely contemporaneous,” Ottilie disagreed, “because the young man was referred by the University for psychological assistance as a result of his emotional state [after breaking up with his accuser]. That all occurred literally within days of when the relationship ended.”
Ottilie believes the Workplace’s choice to low cost the supply indicated gender bias, citing different instances at Stanford and past the place conversations from lengthy after an incident occurred have been nonetheless deemed related to an investigation of a lady’s allegations. His shopper was unable to counter the choice: “The rules precluded my client from doing those interviews on his own,” Ottilie stated.
Miranda stated the College couldn’t touch upon the specifics of the case however said that the matter was “reviewed under an earlier process” and that Stanford now has a third-party “evidentiary specialist” who decides whether or not a witness has related info.
Title IX determined not to cost both social gathering within the case, Ottilie stated, which means the instances have been dropped earlier than going to a listening to.
John Clune, a lawyer who has labored on many high-profile legal instances and suggested college students submitting sexual assault complaints across the nation, stated he understands the College’s want to regulate the standard of the investigation by preserving college students from talking with potential witnesses. Having the choice to incorporate the additional proof into proceedings can’t harm, although, he added.
“If you really want to get the best information out, and there’s a thing the school doesn’t want to investigate, and the student involved wants to provide that information, [the school] should receive it and decide what to do with it,” he stated.
Ottilie additionally disputed College statements about how the Title IX Workplace redacts proof. Documentation supported his account.
In accordance to Stanford’s Title IX course of tips, as soon as the Workplace has gathered all of its proof, it removes or redacts info deemed irrelevant or repetitious from the file of supplies ready for a listening to panel. Events obtain a log of the rationale behind the redactions and could make arguments for the exclusion or inclusion of data to the evidentiary specialist, who makes the ultimate choice about what will get forwarded to panel members.
Miranda stated the third-party specialist has entry to the knowledge redacted by Title IX employees and serves as a examine on their judgement. Events in a case gained’t get to see redacted private particulars like telephone numbers or social safety numbers, he added, however different info that the Title IX Workplace plans to black out might be highlighted for events to assessment.
Ottilie, nevertheless, stated he’s encountered in depth redactions whereas engaged on Title IX instances, in addition to temporary redaction rationales that always solely famous that info was deemed irrelevant. He confirmed The Daily correspondence by which he requested to see any withheld paperwork and clear copies of statements, writing that he couldn’t problem the Title IX Workplace’s exclusions with out figuring out their substance.
Most attorneys who spoke with The Daily stated that they had no complaints about redaction practices, although. Clune stated he has solely seen snippets of figuring out info like names or telephone numbers redacted. Michael Armstrong ’70, a lately retired protection lawyer, informed The Daily that he didn’t recall any such considerations in Stanford instances he has labored on.
Armstrong, who’s greatest recognized for representing former Stanford scholar Brock Turner in his 2016 sexual assault trial, didn’t reply to additional requests for remark.
Considerations about Stanford’s procedures round Title IX proof admission aren’t new, and they arrive from all sides.
Earlier this yr, when the Division of Schooling’s Workplace of Civil Rights (OCR) launched findings from its three-year investigation into Stanford’s Title IX practices, it detailed three instances introduced forth by college students alleging mishandling of their sexual assault studies. One of many three concerned seeming inconsistencies that a complainant dubbed “Student C” encountered with regards to proof and redaction procedures underneath the College’s previous Title IX system.
Stanford might have created an “inequitable process” for her, the federal report concluded.
Scholar C, who filed a Title IX grievance towards a dorm Resident Assistant, requested anonymity on this article as a result of her id isn’t publicly related to the OCR case.
Like Ottilie, Scholar C is skeptical of Title IX directors’ potential to stay impartial, however she believes that the bias swings the opposite means: towards complainants. She informed The Daily that she has felt “numb” to DeVos’ federal modifications to Title IX steerage as a result of Stanford’s course of let her down even underneath Obama-era practices.
The OCR’s findings abstract said that, in Scholar C’s case, Stanford allowed the accused scholar to submit “positive character evidence” as a rebuttal made, partially, to a statement from Scholar C that was not allowed to go earlier than the listening to panel. Moreover, OCR wrote, the Title IX Workplace didn’t redact details about Scholar C’s sexual historical past from the accused’s statements — once more, on the grounds that it was a suitable rebuttal — regardless that it was faraway from different witness statements as “prejudicial.”
Info from Scholar C that “may have clarified” the matter was not given to the panel, the OCR discovered.
Stanford’s insurance policies usually prohibit use of sexual historical past and character proof in instances, besides underneath particular circumstances. Responding to the OCR report earlier this yr, Provost Persis Drell stated that the College would work to ensure these insurance policies are adopted.
“It was [the University’s] position — and it continues to be our position — that there were legitimate reasons for the panel to consider evidence in the Student C matter other than for the purpose of providing positive character evidence,” Miranda wrote.
Scholar C informed The Daily she believes Title IX’s dealing with of proof favors the accused. She stated she was uncomfortable when, over her objections, the Title IX investigator in her case confirmed the listening to panel proof that Scholar C needed to exclude — arguing to the panel that it ought to be included as a result of it spoke to Scholar C’s credibility. Scholar C was additionally not allowed to be current whereas the Title IX investigator spoke with panel members, though she was advised her arguments can be relayed.
This account is corroborated by emails between Scholar C and an administrator.
In accordance to Scholar C, the proof in query included a declare that she had a historical past of accusing Resident Assistants of sexual assault — one thing she disputes, saying this was her solely Title IX case — and a statement by the accused scholar that he had by no means masturbated due to his household background.
“[Title IX] allowed the reviewers that would be deciding my case to see everything before asking them to [potentially] decide to unsee something and not consider it,” Scholar C stated. “That’s not how people work.”
Introduced with the responding scholar’s unredacted statement, the panel opted to maintain all the things.
“Because [the investigator] was the only person there to present these disputes, she was allowed to characterize the dispute however she wanted,” Scholar C stated.
The OCR’s report on Scholar C’s case notes that the College additionally declined to embrace certainly one of her witness interviews after deeming it irrelevant.
Miranda emphasised that Scholar C’s case occurred beneath a previous Title IX system. He stated Stanford’s new Title IX course of, by including the third-party evidentiary specialist, has addressed Scholar C’s considerations about panelists being unable to “unsee” info.
Capacity to reply
Ottilie stated the accused shoppers he talked about have been both not charged or not discovered accountable by the College. Nevertheless, he argued that Stanford’s procedures made it troublesome for his shoppers to reply to a grievance successfully.
Former College spokesperson Lisa Lapin informed The Daily final yr that college students obtain a “notice of concern” formally informing them of what they’re being investigated for, together with the identify of the complainant, “approximate dates” of the alleged offense and potential insurance policies they could have violated.
The Title IX Workplace collects proof and, following the top of its investigation, decides whether or not to cost the accused. If it does cost them, it offers an evidentiary “hearing file” to each events within the case. After that point, new info is just admitted if it qualifies as one thing unavailable earlier or as “rebuttal” proof — one thing that a get together couldn’t have anticipated as related.
Every get together can also be allowed to submit a 1,500-word ultimate letter responding to the listening to file. This letter can’t introduce new proof: Interviews with Title IX investigators are events’ “opportunity to provide facts about the allegation(s) under consideration,” Miranda wrote.
Ottilie criticized the responding scholar’s lack of ability to know each declare made about them from the beginning.
“The point is, you should get everything before you have to give your everything response,” Ottilie stated.
He stated the discover of concern just isn’t a lot to go on in contrast to the complete complainant statement his shoppers used to obtain earlier than Stanford carried out its new Title IX course of. Recalling the case during which a male and feminine scholar who had dated each filed claims towards one another, Ottilie stated the Title IX Workplace wouldn’t slender down the date of the feminine scholar’s allegations to a specific yr.
“Under the [old process], responding students were given ‘concerns,’ which came in different forms,” Lapin stated. “Sometimes it was a statement from the complainant, sometimes it was an email from a reporting party, and sometimes it was a summary from the Office of Community Standards of an oral report. The current process creates an even, consistent playing field for all parties.”
Scholar C informed The Daily that she sees the brand new, much less detailed discover to responding college students as an enchancment over the complainant statement Ottilie talked about.
She thinks limiting an accused particular person’s info prior to their interview with Title IX forces them to “give their version of events, uninfluenced” whereas additionally limiting their capacity to “spin a cover story.”
“If a respondent is telling the truth, they would not hesitate to give their version of events as it happened on a particular date — and that does not require knowing what the complainant has said thus far,” she stated.
Ottilie, then again, stated his shoppers have opted not to be interviewed by Title IX as a result of they’re uncomfortable with the Title IX Workplace’s coverage of not recording interviews and relying solely on notes — a coverage that Stanford defends as much less “intrusive and intimidating” to college students.
Ottilie added that he’s been annoyed prior to now when further proof his shoppers tried to present was rejected as a result of it associated to one thing that had been disclosed earlier within the case. Particulars won’t come to mild till the listening to file, he stated, at which point investigators may surmise that the accused already had the prospect to handle the difficulty broadly.
He stated that one in every of his shoppers turned conscious — upon studying his listening to file — that the Title IX Workplace was wanting into allegations it hadn’t listed within the unique discover of concern.
“The student said, ‘Now that I know what you were concocting with those weird questions I want to give you all this stuff,’ and [the Title IX Office] said, ‘No … just wait and do it with the 1,500-word letter,’” Ottilie stated. “In real court, we might come up with 10 witnesses of our own.”
Though privateness guidelines forestall the College from discussing particular instances, Stanford maintained that the Title IX Workplace notifies events of further allegations if the scope of an investigation grows.
In accordance to Miranda, Stanford’s new Title IX course of was meant to shut a “loophole” within the previous system that allowed events to present new info after seeing all the proof gathered about their case by an investigation. Because of that loophole, he added, some respondents waited to give info till later and didn’t take part within the investigation at its outset.
The new guidelines preclude “the possibility of gamesmanship,” Miranda wrote.
Stanford’s course of gathers info in a trauma-informed method, as required beneath what California regulation calls “victim-centered” processes, he added, saying that each one college students in Title IX instances have “equal opportunity to share information and appeal outcomes.”
Naomi Rustomjee, an lawyer who has suggested respondents beneath Stanford’s present Title IX course of, defended Stanford’s system.
“Although, as a defense attorney, I would always want more rather than less due process for the accused… I find Stanford’s pilot program affords significantly more due process for responding students than is the case at other schools,” Rustomjee wrote to The Daily in an e mail, citing options resembling Stanford’s requirement that listening to panels should agree unanimously so as to discover a scholar responsible.
Rustomjee is amongst a gaggle of attorneys that Stanford now makes out there to each events in a Title IX case for up to 9 hours of free session. The College-sponsored attorneys turned the middle of controversy in early 2017 after Stanford dropped a lawyer, Crystal Riggins, from the panel, citing “disappointing” important feedback concerning the Title IX course of she’d made to The New York Occasions. Riggins, who focuses on representing complainants and declined to remark for this piece, informed The Occasions, “It is very difficult to get a 3-0 decision from a panel, and these young women are terrified and traumatized and just want it to be done.”
Rustomjee famous that she doesn’t essentially agree with the outcomes of each case however believes that the Title IX directors at Stanford work to “get it right.”
“That alone is a whole lot more than one can say about other schools’ Title IX administrations,” she wrote.
Title IX versus the legal system
On the middle of nationwide controversy over Title IX coverage is the query of how a lot campus mechanisms for coping with sexual assault ought to resemble these used within the legal justice system.
Debate on the matter heated up in 2011 underneath the administration of President Barack Obama when his Division of Schooling issued a “Dear Colleague” letter instructing faculties to undertake, amongst different modifications, a “preponderance of evidence” — or “more likely than not” — normal for Title IX instances. Employed in civil courtroom instances, this bar is decrease than the “beyond a reasonable doubt” normal wanted to discover a legal defendant responsible. The 2011 letter, issued with out the general public remark interval that might have given it the drive of regulation, contained solely tips — however directors throughout American universities have stated that the Workplace of Civil Rights ceaselessly used the doc when investigating establishments for potential Title IX violations.
DeVos rescinded the Pricey Colleague letter final fall, stating Title IX had overreached beneath Obama. DeVos then issued interim tips permitting faculties to use a better “clear and convincing” commonplace of proof in the event that they wished.
Stanford Regulation professor Michael McConnell, a senior fellow on the Hoover Establishment, welcomed the announcement.
The Pricey Colleague letter “wreaked havoc and injustice all over the country, and it’s time to have some balance,” he informed The Daily.
Critics have argued that school Title IX processes exist with out procedural parts — corresponding to testimony beneath oath or the oversight of a educated decide — that offset the decrease burden of proof employed in civil instances. Such critics additionally query the power of universities to perform investigations of great offenses.
College students who filed campus sexual assault complaints have sued faculties throughout the nation, together with Stanford, for mishandling their instances. In its investigation, OCR recognized considerations with how the College dealt with instances of complainants that filed with the federal workplace in 2015 and 2016. Stanford pledged to tackle the considerations in a decision reached with OCR.
Equally, accused college students have efficiently sued their universities or had their sanctions reversed over due course of claims. In October, a district courtroom of appeals overturned a College of California Santa Barbara scholar’s two-year suspension and reprimanded the varsity for denying him a good listening to.
In 2016, a male scholar discovered liable for sexual assault by Stanford sued the College for “discriminatory zeal to prosecute sexual assault claims.” Neither the scholar’s lawyer nor Stanford responded to a request for touch upon the case’s present standing.
Stanford Regulation professor Michele Dauber, an activist and outstanding advocate for sexual assault victims, argued that those that say their “due process” has been denied in Title IX proceedings are sometimes projecting felony trial rights onto a lot much less stringent proceedings extra comparable to these used for eviction from public housing or the termination of welfare advantages.
“The first word of due process is due, and it means literally, ‘What process is due given the context that we are in?’” Dauber stated. “Basically, the courts have said that students are entitled to almost no due process.”
“It sounds more weighty to say, ‘We’ve been denied due process’ than it does to say, ‘We don’t like the way these hearings are run,’” she added.
Clune believes that the majority schools have accomplished an excellent job of making certain due course of for each side and that the Division of Schooling’s present push for change is fueled by anecdotal proof.
McConnell agreed with Dauber that, notably as a personal college, Stanford’s authorized obligations to college students accused in Title IX instances are minimal. However he stated Stanford ought to transcend what’s strictly required of them and present a few of the rights the accused would have in courtroom ruling, akin to powers of cross-examination. McConnell stated he understands the rationale for preserving an accused scholar from cross-examining their alleged sufferer — a apply regularly denounced as retraumatizing — however believes that, on the very least, investigators in Title IX instances ought to be themselves higher scrutinized.
“A police officer is always put on the stand in a criminal case,” McConnell stated. “Did you investigate this, did you investigate that? … Was there any exculpatory evidence?”
Title IX case outcomes
For advocates of the accused, the seriousness of sexual assault allegations and their penalties imply that College processes benefit extra rigorous protections than these at present offered for accused college students.
John Villasenor M.S. ’86 Ph.D. ’89, a visiting fellow on the Hoover Establishment, was lately invited by the Stanford Political Union to talk about his analysis on Title IX requirements of proof at a campus debate. The analysis — revealed within the peer-reviewed journal Regulation, Chance and Danger — examined the probability that an harmless individual can be discovered responsible beneath both the “beyond a reasonable doubt” or the “preponderance of evidence” requirements.
Villasenor concluded that, when shifting to “preponderance of evidence,” the probability elevated fivefold beneath probably the most mathematically conservative mannequin and up to as a lot as 19-fold relying on what estimate was used for wrongful convictions in courtroom.
Title IX instances will not be felony, Villasenor stated, however they will nonetheless maintain excessive stakes for the accused. He cited a New York Occasions article from earlier this yr a few male Michigan State scholar discovered answerable for sexual assault in a Title IX course of that the Occasions author instructed was unfair. After his expulsion was publicized, the scholar filed a lawsuit claiming the varsity wrecked his athletic profession.
“If an innocent person is subjected to eviction from a degree program, to the loss of an ability to earn a livelihood and to the stigma and resulting lost opportunities that will follow him around for decades — that is an enormously heavy punishment to bear, and a terrible injustice,” Villasenor wrote in an e mail to The Daily.
Advocates for complainants, however, consider that faculties’ capacity to shield their college students from sexual predators nonetheless falls brief and counter that a decrease normal of proof is acceptable provided that faculties usually are not sending individuals to jail however slightly making an attempt to make their campuses protected for college kids. Clune, for instance, was largely complimentary of Stanford’s insurance policies, though he takes concern with the requirement that a panel vote unanimously to discover a scholar accountable (one thing victims rights proponents have criticized as uncommon amongst peer establishments).
“It’s gonna be something that bites Stanford in the long run when they have a student who’s found responsible by two of three panel members and that student goes on to hurt somebody else,” Clune stated.
Dauber argued that Stanford and different faculties have lengthy delivered overly lenient sanctions for critical offenses. A number of years in the past, Stanford scholar Leah Francis ’14 ignited campus protests after likening Stanford’s suspension of the scholar who it discovered responsible of assaulting her to a “gap year.” Each events in Francis’ case went on to file complaints with OCR. The accused is identical scholar who sued the College in 2016.
Stanford has since made expulsion its default sanction for sexual assault. Nevertheless, a report launched this yr by Provost Persis Drell indicated that, within the 2016-2017 educational yr, not one of the punishments given to college students discovered liable for assault rose to that degree.
In accordance to the identical report, there have been almost 200 stories of sexual assault, harassment or relationship violence at Stanford in 2016-2017 throughout all demographic teams. Of the 58 formal investigations inside these classes carried out by the College, 32 resulted in findings of coverage violations.
Title IX instances supply extra than simply sanctions for perpetrators. Agreements between events in a case can stipulate, for instance, that a sufferer has precedence in school enrollment and housing placement, that the accused can’t contact their accuser or that there are specific locations on campus the accused can’t go.
Faculties may additionally supply these lodging as interim measures whereas a Title IX case is pending.
Clune thinks interim measures are needed to forestall a hostile instructional setting for sexual assault victims. Prior to the “Dear Colleague” letter, he stated, many college students would merely depart faculty out of discomfort — typically completely — earlier than their case was resolved.
“Your process becomes completely moot and ineffective if you’re not putting in an interim measure that allows the complaining student to continue to attend,” he stated.
These interim measures have additionally drawn criticism from defendants’ rights advocates who contend that they undermine entry to schooling for somebody who has not been discovered responsible.
Ottilie stated one in every of his current Stanford shoppers was moved out of campus housing for a number of months as an interim measure and solely allowed to go to campus and attend class within the presence of a safety guard. The scholar additionally had to notify Title IX of all non-class visits, he stated, and not often got here to Stanford’s campus because of the constraints.
“That’s a great big scarlet letter that says you are an accused rapist,” Ottilie stated of the safety guard. Whereas the Title IX Workplace finally didn’t pursue a case towards the shopper, he stated, “To this day Stanford [has] never done one thing for him to say they’re sorry.”
Writing to The Daily, Miranda responded that Stanford takes “steps necessary to protect the safety of the campus community when it is placed on notice of significant concerns.” Safety guards stability that concern with ongoing entry to schooling, he added.
College students have joined the talk over Title IX coverage as nicely.
Shortly after DeVos was appointed as Schooling Secretary, The Stanford Evaluate’s Editorial Board urged her to increase the usual of proof required in campus sexual assault instances, arguing that it undermined accused college students’ rights.
In the meantime, leaders of the Stanford Affiliation of College students for Sexual Assault Prevention (ASAP) have stated that Stanford’s insurance policies don’t do sufficient to maintain perpetrators accountable.
Previous and present ASSU government groups have made Title IX coverage a key concern of their platforms. Present scholar physique president Shanta Katipamula ’19 and vice chairman Ph.D. candidate Rosie Nelson pledged of their marketing campaign to push for a wider definition of sexual assault and the elimination of Stanford’s unanimous panel requirement, amongst different reforms.
“Almost all universities, unlike Stanford, require a majority vote of a panel for both a finding of responsibility and for a sanction,” Katipamula and Nelson wrote.
On Nov. 16, Schooling Secretary Betsy DeVos launched her proposed modifications to the federal coverage that guides how schools deal with sexual assault instances. The proposal, if enacted, would chop the definition of sexual assault, scale back faculties’ legal responsibility for assaults and let events’ advisors cross-examine the opposite celebration.
Stanford directors have advised the group, nevertheless, that little is altering.
“Nothing changes today in our campus Title IX procedures as a result of this development,” Provost Drell wrote in a November weblog submit after DeVos launched the proposal. “We fully intend to continue our efforts to reject sexual violence in our community, to support survivors, to hold perpetrators accountable and to have fair adjudication processes.”
Revisions to Stanford’s scholar Title IX course of are ongoing, Miranda wrote, as any updates will want to be accepted by the Workplace of Civil Rights. He confirmed that an advisory committee has given suggestions on the method to Drell, however didn’t present specifics. In accordance to Miranda, OCR is at present reviewing modifications to Stanford’s sexual harassment and assault insurance policies that have been made following the federal workplace’s investigation.
As well as to flagging considerations with particular instances, OCR’s investigation discovered areas the place the varsity was not in compliance with federal coverage. The Workplace pointed to points like inadequate documentation of complaints and a scarcity of readability round self-discipline insurance policies for workers discovered accountable in a Title IX case. Stanford agreed to tackle the considerations in its decision with OCR.
Equal Rights Advocates, a civil rights group whose shoppers filed with OCR towards Stanford, lauded the federal investigation’s outcomes.
“No student should be denied access to education because of sexual harassment or violence,” stated Jennifer Reisch, authorized director for ERA, in a press launch. “This is an opportunity for Stanford to turn over a new leaf and create a campus environment that is safe and equitable for all.”
As quite a few and often-clashing criticisms of the Title IX course of show, precisely how Stanford ought to create this “safe and equitable” setting stays contentious.
Contact Hannah Knowles at hknowles ‘at’ stanford.edu.
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